More on methodology – the marketing approach

26 October 2008

I wrote recently about the methodology of triple hermeneutics as described by Alvesson and Stöcklund and how it might be relevant to my work. The trail that led to this started with my director of studies’ suggestion that I look at the world of marketing in respect of how it deals with perceptions. This has now led to the writing of  Chisnall (2005). Sure enough in the chapter on “Basic Techniques” there is a discussion of the place of reliability and validity in qualitative and attitude research . I quite like this word ‘attitude’. It helps frame a question ‘What is the attitude‘ of 16-year olds to ICT capability and its assessment. Chisnall says

“The measurement of behavioural factors such as attitudes… has been attempted by a variety of techniques… the ones that are the most reliable and valid from a technical viewpoint generally being the most difficult… to apply” (p234).

Oh well!

Validity for Chisnall consists of content, concurrent and construct validity – so fairly conventional there. One would have expected face validity to be mentioned too, perhaps. He also cites a pamphlet (sic) by Bearden et al (1993) that describes some 124 scales for measuring such things in the field of marketing, consumer behaviour and social research.

Bearden, W, Netemeyer, R & Mobley, M (1993), Handbook of marketing scales: Multi-item measures for marketing and consumer behaviour research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage (in conjunction with the ACR).

Chisnall, P (2005), Marketing research (7th ed). NY: McGraw Hill.


Putting the Ph into the PhD?

14 October 2008

I have been struggling this week with the concept of ‘perception‘. After a tutorial my focus was on how I might apporach the capture and analysis of students’ ‘perceptions‘ about assessment. This word has been quite fundamental to my description of the research. In the tutorial, we got talking about marketing theories and perceptual analysis as a method in that discipline.

Needless to say I know little about marketing. So what is the perceptual analysis? It has proved an elusive hunt but I have travelled over some interesting territory. One laden with ontological considerations and debate.

First there is the hermeneutics of Husserl and Heidegger. For one the importance of the existence of the objects  of consciousness ONLY in the way in which they are perceived by the consciousness, for the other the autonomy of such objects irrespective of the sense we bestow on them. This perception is then reported linguistically and Wittgenstein’s concept of the language game filters any such sense.

Then there is the triple hermeneutics of Alvesson and Sköldberg (2000). Hermeneutics – the analysis of interpration, double hermeneutics – the analysis of interpreted interpretation (the dual lenses of researcher and respondent), triple hermeneutics – the analysis of interpreted interpretation and the context behind that interpretation (the three lenses of researcher, respondent and context).

Lowe et al (2005) propose a 4th hermeneutic in the context of marketing (and that was how I came in) but I am not sure yet how this applies!

Finally, and most pragmatically (*), Conroy (2003) examines interpretive phenomenology (or rather re examines it) and develops a  methodology and methods for doing something fairly similar to what I am proposing, albeit in the context of nursing (the usual context for this approach, it seems). Here is a model that I need to examine and critique for its use in my study as I move towards the primary research phase.

And in this phrase – interpretive phenomenology – hides the word I have been meaning when I have said perception: it is interpretation. So not ‘what is a student’s perception of….’ but what is a student’s interpretation of…’ The problem is, you see, that perception has a particular meaning in this philosophical arena. I had to go down the false road of Arnold Berleant to realise it… Thanks are due here to my colleague Kev Flint…

I have a fair chunk of literature review written, I have many ideas about methodology and method. Now is the time to crystallize this and move on to ‘action’. My director of studies agrees and this ‘permission’ is what I have been waiting for…

(*) pragmatic in the the sense of being related to action… but actually very philosophical in nature